“The first casualty of war is truth.”

“The first casualty of war is truth.

Rudyard Kipling

Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail. Without it nothing can succeed. He who molds opinion is greater than he who enacts laws.

President Abraham Lincoln


The mind of the enemy and the will of his leaders is a target of far more importance than the bodies of his troops.

Mao Zedong



Psychological Operations or PSYOP are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of organizations, groups, and individuals.


The mind has no firewall.

Timothy L. Thomas,  PARAMETERS, Spring 1998


There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Modern war has become a struggle for men’s minds as well as for their bodies.

Brigadier General Robert McClure, Korean War


All propaganda has to be popular and has to adapt its spiritual level to the perception of the least intelligent of those towards whom it intends to direct itself.

Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), Vol. I


The British bombarded our front not only with drum-fire of shells, but also with a drum-fire of printed paper. Besides bombs which kill the body, they drop from the air leaflets which are intended to kill the soul.

Fieldmarshall Hindenberg, 1918

By way of deception, thou shalt do war.

Israel’s Mossad


PSYOP…was a great threat to troop morale, second only to the coalition bombing campaign.

Iraqi General after Operation DESERT STORM



The real target in war is the mind of the enemy command, not the bodies of his troops. If we operate against his troops it is fundamentally for the effect that action will produce on the mind and will of the commander; indeed, the trend of warfare and the development of new weapons – aircraft and tanks – promise to give us increased and more direct opportunities of striking at this psychological target.

Captain Sir Basil H. Liddell Hart, 1944

A lie told often enough becomes the truth.

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.


In effect, the human being should be considered the priority in a political war. And conceived as the military target … the human being has his most critical point in his mind. Once the mind has been reached, the ‘political animal’ has been defeated without necessarily receiving bullets.

US Central Intelligence Agency training manual



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