astroturf groups

Astroturf refers to apparently grassroots-based citizen groups or coalitions that are primarily conceived, created and/or funded by corporations, industry trade associations, political interests or public relations firms.

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Related SourceWatch articles


  1. Jump up Brian McNeill, “Forged letters to congressman anger local groups,” Daily Progress (Charlottesville, Virginia), July 31, 2009.
  2. Jump up “Tom Perriello Cosponsors Clean Water Protection Act (HR 1310)”,!, April 30, 2009.
  3.  Jump up to:3.0 3.1 Alex Kaplun, “Coal Industry Group Linked to a Dozen Forged Cap-And-Trade Letters,” New York Times, August 4, 2009.
  4. Jump up David A. Fahrenthold, “House Unearths a 14th Forged Letter from a Lobbyist,” Washington Post,September 10, 2009.
  5. Jump up Alex Kaplun, “Sierra Club asks DOJ to investigate forged climate letters,” E&ENews PM, August 3, 2009.
  6.  Jump up to:6.0 6.1 Arthur Delaney, [ “Pro-Coal Lobby Boss Claims Never To Have Opposed Climate Bill,” Huffington Post, October 29, 2009.
  7. Jump up Zachary Roth, “Could Coal Lobby Chief Be Probed For Perjury?,” TPMMuckraker, October 29, 2009.
  8. Jump up “FACES of Coal Plans to Highlight Industry’s Importance,” WVNS-TV, August 20, 2009.
  9.  Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Michelle Saxton, “Another pro-coal group enters the energy debate, Charleston Daily Mail,August 20, 2009.
  10. Jump up FACES of Coal, accessed August 2009.
  11. Jump up “FACES of Coal Campaign Launches in Charleston,” FACES of Coal, August 19, 2009.
  12. Jump up Kate Sheppard, “Who are the faces behind FACES of Coal?,” Grist, August 20, 2009.
  13. Jump up “FACES of Coal are iStockPhotos?!,” Appalachian Voices Front Porch Blog, August 26, 2009.
  14.  Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Alexandra Kougentakis, Brad Johnson What The Frack? Gas Industry’s Multimillion-Dollar Campaign Demonizes Hydraulic Fracturing Bill, Think Progress; The Wonk Room. June 12, 2009
  15. Jump up Barry Russell, Independent Petroleum Association of America President and CEO Hydraulic Fracturing Under Attack, memo/newsletter to IPAA members, June 5, 2009
  16. Jump up John Scruggs, Philip Morris Management Corp. The “Echo Chamber” Approach to AdvocacyMemorandum. December 18, 1998. Bates No. 2078707451/7452
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