Astroturf refers to apparently grassroots-based citizen groups or coalitions that are primarily conceived, created and/or funded by corporations, industry trade associations, political interests or public relations firms.
Articles and resources
SourceWatch case studies
- Astroturfing in Australia
- Grassroots PR Activists Swap War Stories
- Journalists who have been taken in by astroturfing
- Energy in Depth
Related SourceWatch articles
- Astroturf Marketing
- Beckel Cowan
- Bivings Group
- Bonner & Associates
- Davies Communications
- DCI Group
- Direct Impact
- front groups
- The Hawthorn Group
- Hill & Knowlton
- Issue Dynamics Inc.
- National Grassroots & Communications
- New West Public Affairs
- Optima Direct
- Phase Line Strategies
- Brian McNeill, “Forged letters to congressman anger local groups,” Daily Progress (Charlottesville, Virginia), July 31, 2009.
- “Tom Perriello Cosponsors Clean Water Protection Act (HR 1310)”, ArticleXI.com!, April 30, 2009.
- Alex Kaplun, “Coal Industry Group Linked to a Dozen Forged Cap-And-Trade Letters,” New York Times, August 4, 2009.
- David A. Fahrenthold, “House Unearths a 14th Forged Letter from a Lobbyist,” Washington Post,September 10, 2009.
- Alex Kaplun, “Sierra Club asks DOJ to investigate forged climate letters,” E&ENews PM, August 3, 2009.
- Arthur Delaney, [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/29/pro-coal-lobby-boss-claim_n_338794.html “Pro-Coal Lobby Boss Claims Never To Have Opposed Climate Bill,” Huffington Post, October 29, 2009.
- Zachary Roth, “Could Coal Lobby Chief Be Probed For Perjury?,” TPMMuckraker, October 29, 2009.
- “FACES of Coal Plans to Highlight Industry’s Importance,” WVNS-TV, August 20, 2009.
- Michelle Saxton, “Another pro-coal group enters the energy debate, Charleston Daily Mail,August 20, 2009.
- FACES of Coal, accessed August 2009.
- “FACES of Coal Campaign Launches in Charleston,” FACES of Coal, August 19, 2009.
- Kate Sheppard, “Who are the faces behind FACES of Coal?,” Grist, August 20, 2009.
- “FACES of Coal are iStockPhotos?!,” Appalachian Voices Front Porch Blog, August 26, 2009.
- Alexandra Kougentakis, Brad Johnson What The Frack? Gas Industry’s Multimillion-Dollar Campaign Demonizes Hydraulic Fracturing Bill, Think Progress; The Wonk Room. June 12, 2009
- Barry Russell, Independent Petroleum Association of America President and CEO Hydraulic Fracturing Under Attack, memo/newsletter to IPAA members, June 5, 2009
- John Scruggs, Philip Morris Management Corp. The “Echo Chamber” Approach to AdvocacyMemorandum. December 18, 1998. Bates No. 2078707451/7452
- Term: “astroturf”, Center for Media and Democracy
- “United Church of Christ Stooge for the Baby Bells?” UCCTruths.com. Note: link to dated article not available. Yes, it is:  The Internet Archive is a good source for “missing” webpages.
- Monsanto: “Monsanto’s Web of Deceit” posted by Norfolk Genetic Information Network, various dates.
- John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton, Toxic Sludge Is Good For You: Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).
- Sharon Beder, Public Relations’ Role in Manufacturing Artificial Grass Roots Coalitions, Public Relations Quarterly 43(2), Summer 98, pp. 21-3.
- Tim Craig, “Community Leaders Decry Lobby Firm’s Fax,” Baltimore Sun, March 9, 2002.
- George Monbiot, “The Fake Persuaders. Corporations are inventing people to rubbish their opponents on the internet,” The Guardian (UK) (posted by Norfolk Genetic Information Network), May 14, 2002.
- “Gray Panther Ads Targeting WorldCom Funded by IDI,” Corporate Crime Reporter, June 2, 2003.
- Christopher Stern, “WorldCom Opponents In Sync,” Washington Post, June 19, 2003.
- “Bogus Sites & Startups: From Web Astroturf To Turf-toe,” alarm:clock, February 9, 2005.
- “Lobbying: Astroturf reform dead?” SpinWatch, March 2, 2006.
- John Eggerton, “Groups Target ‘Astroturf’ Telecom Lobbies“, Broadcasting & Cable, March 28, 2006.
- Claire St. John, ‘Astroturf’ legislation could work in Davis, too, Davis Enterprise, April 27, 2006.
- Dawn Holian, “Astroturf Sightings,” Common Cause Blog, June 22, 2006.
- Public Relations Institute of Australia, “Where the grass is not greener: Astro-turfing not an import Australia wants to grow“, PRIA News, July 19, 2006.
- Teresa Nielsen Hayden, “No intention of playing fair,” Making Light Blog, August 1, 2006.
- Raven, “Global Warming Astroturf courtesy of Exxon,” Buy Blue, August 3, 2006. re Al Gore‘s An Inconvenient Truth
- Dawn Holian, “Wolves in Sheep’s Clothing: Telecom Industry Front Groups and Astroturf” (Part 1) and (Part 2), Common Cause Blog, August 10, 2006.
- Dawn Holian, “New Astroturf,” Common Cause Blog, August 25, 2006.
- R. Scott Raynovich, “Astroturf, Anyone?” Light Reading, August 29, 2006.
- Richard Roesler, “ Eye on Olympia Blog/Spokesman Review, August 31, 2006.
- Brad Shannon, “Money pours into court races,” The Olympian Online (WA), September 5, 2006.
- Press Release: “Rash of Negative Ads in Court Races. Bring ‘New Politics of Judicial Elections’ to Washington State,” Brennan Center for Justice, September 8, 2006.
- Joel Connelly, “Attack ads on judges paid for by fake PACs,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 11, 2006.
- Esc and Ctrl part 1 
- Esc and Ctrl part 2 
- Esc and Ctrl part 3 
- Coal Industry Paid Astro-turfers to Influence EPA Hearing on Greenhouse Gases