technology addicts are test addicts.. but who designs the test… and how?

are we a generation of “testers”? if so where does that data go? who does what with it? would we ever build a society about “testing” everyone without consent or knowledge of being “experimented”? why? would a generation ever “figure out” they are “sold in to being “constantly tested their entire life”? could that experiment ever get “out of hand or “perception”?

1.A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2.A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3.A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Laws_of_Robotics

are we “only” what our “made” “machines” say we are or to become?
who could question that if “everyone” believes in “machines” and “tests”?

is our american soceity about “testing” covertly”?

could the society about testing “everyone”… ever create a “higher” prejudice and distrcimination toward the very people they “test”? and never be held accountable? how would they(both the tested or the testers) ever find out?

Social Psychology: Stereotype, Prejudice, Discrimination, and Just World Hypothesis/Belief

Implicit Association Test – Mahzarin Banaji

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Personality_tests

The implicit-association test (IAT) is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person’s automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory. The IAT was introduced in the scientific literature in 1998 by Anthony Greenwald, Debbie McGhee, and Jordan Schwartz.[1] The IAT is now widely used in social psychology research and is used to some extent in clinical, cognitive, and developmental psychology research. Although some controversy still exists regarding the IAT and what it measures, much research into its validity and psychometric properties has been conducted since its introduction into the literature.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implicit-association_test

Unit 3… Personality, Values, Perception and Decision Making

MAJOR CONCEPTS: THE BIG PICTURE
Below are five basic issues or principles that organize Chapter 5. You should know these issues and
principles well.
1. Stereotypes are beliefs about others based on their group membership. People share the tendency
to put individuals into social categories. This social categorization leads people to see outgroup
members as all the same and to generalize from characterizations of individual members to
characterizations of the group and vice versa. Stereotypes lead to the distortion of people’s
perception of others and can be self-perpetuating. Further they are often activated without
people’s awareness and can affect people’s perceptions without their awareness. With effort,
people can sometimes overcome the use of stereotypes, but suppression of their use is difficult on
a long-term basis.
2. Prejudice consists of negative feelings about others based on their group membership. Such
feelings of prejudice can arise from conflicts with others, as demonstrated in the Robbers Cave
experiment. They can also arise from an effort to maintain a positive sense of self-esteem and a
positive group identity.
3. Sexism is discrimination based on a person’s gender. Gender stereotypes are prevalent the world
over and are often activated in our personal interactions. Although differences do exist between
men and women on some traits, gender stereotypes typically exaggerate these differences. The
media and social roles help perpetuate gender stereotypes. The impact of sexism is clearly seen in
the context of occupational access: Both men and women are judged more favorably when they
apply for jobs that are consistent with gender stereotypes.

4. Racism is discrimination based on a person’s skin color or ethnic origin. Although most research
has focused on Blacks and Whites, the growing number of multiracial people in North America is
bound to change this. While overt endorsement of racist statements on surveys has declined over
the years, subtle forms of prejudice are still pervasive and can take the form of ambivalence or
even unconscious discrimination. Recently a number of researchers have made important
advances in detecting such forms of modern racism by using computer tasks.
5. The targets of discrimination often cope with negative feedback by attributing it to prejudice.
While this strategy appears to have positive consequences for self-esteem, targets may feel a lack
of control over their lives. The targets of stereotyping are affected by the threat that the stereotype
implies about their ability. Research on stereotype threat shows that when people believe others
may view them stereotypically this can undermine their academic performance; however, when
this stereotype threat is removed, the stereotyped perform just as well as the unstereotyped.
6. Intergroup contact can lead to better intergroup relations, but only when the groups have equal
status and are characterized by personal interactions, the need to achieve common goals, and
supportive social norms. The jigsaw classroom is one technique that has consistently improved
race relations. Changes in the kinds of information perpetuated in one’s culture can alter how an
individual perceives social groups.

Consumer Behavior – Consumer Perception and Decision Making

Markets, Self-Regulation, and Government Enforcment in the Protection of Personal Information

Peter P. Swire(1)

Let’s begin with a sense of the problem. Imagine that one day your bank or telephone company puts all of your transaction or phone records up on a Web site for the world to see. Imagine, more realistically, that the company without your permission simply sells your records to another company, for use in the latter’s marketing efforts. A broad consensus would agree that posting to the Web site is undesirable. Many people would also object to the sale of personal information without the customer’s permission.

Assuming that there can be significant problems in the protection of personal information, the next question is to ask what institutions in society should be relied upon to address such problems. This paper examines the chief institutions for protecting personal information. One institutional solution is to rely on the market. The basic idea is that the reputation and sales of companies will suffer if they offend customers’ desires about protecting privacy. An opposite institutional approach would rely on government enforcement. The basic idea is that enforcement of mandatory legal rules would deter companies from abusing people’s privacy.

A significant element of current thinking about privacy, however, stresses “self-regulation” rather than market or government mechanisms for protecting personal information. Numerous companies and industry groups have promulgated self-regulatory codes or guidelines for the use of personal information. This article is part of a broader study by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) about the uses and limitations of self-regulation. The NTIA has also already given (somewhat qualified) support for a self-regulatory approach for the control of personal information in telecommunications.1

Today we face a special urgency in deciding how to use markets, self-regulation, and government enforcement to protect personal information. There is a widespread and accurate sense that a greater amount of personal information is being assembled in databases, and that more and more people have the computer and telecommunications resources to access and manipulate that personal information. The economics and technologies underlying use of personal information are fundamentally changing. These changes, in turn, make it quite likely that we will need to change the institutional arrangements governing use of personal information.

The protection of personal information arises in a wide and growing range of industries. A partial listing might include: health records; credit history; banking transactions; local and long-distance telephone calls; pay-per-view, VCR rental, cable, and other video records; records of an Internet service provider; and purchases made through direct mail or telephone ordering. This paper cannot hope to determine the best mix of markets, self-regulation, and government for protecting privacy in all of these diverse industries. This paper instead provides an analytic framework for understanding privacy issues in a wide range of industries. Armed with the analytic framework, we will not only understand more clearly what is meant by “self-regulation,” but we will identify the empirical issues that are likely to be crucial in deciding when self-regulation should be preferred over market or government approaches.

https://www.ntia.doc.gov/page/chapter-1-theory-markets-and-privacy

Test construction strategies

Test construction strategies are the various ways that items in a psychological measure are created and decided upon. They are most often associated with personality tests, but can also be applied to other psychological constructs such as mood or psychopathology. There are three commonly used general strategies: Inductive, Deductive, and Empirical.[1] Scales created today will often incorporate elements of all three methods.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test_construction_strategies

Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.[1] In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as “all people living in a country” or “every atom composing a crystal”. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics

. It suggests that either the organizations and their leaders consistently separate their research from social context or that a racist and eugenicist approach is so common in the profession of psychological testing that Cattell simply did not stand out.

http://fairtest.org/racism-eugenics-and-testing-again

Insights from psychology and behavioral economics about how and why people make certain choices, combined with digital technologies, social media, and smartphones, have enabled designers to create sophisticated persuasive technologies.
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/535826/technology-and-persuasion/

Whichever IAT you do, we will ask you (optionally) to report your attitudes toward or beliefs about these topics, and provide some general information about yourself. These demonstrations should be more valuable if you have also tried to describe your self-understanding of the characteristic that the IAT is designed to measure.
https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

Introduction to Conceptual Models – Intro to the Design of Everyday Things

are personality testers a business? what is the business model for personality testers?

A personality test is a questionnaire or other standardized instrument designed to reveal aspects of an individual’s character or psychological makeup.

The first personality tests were developed in the 1920s[1] and were intended to ease the process of personnel selection, particularly in the armed forces. Since these early efforts, a wide variety of personality tests have been developed, notably the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the MMPI, and a number of tests based on the Five Factor Model of personality, such as the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

Estimates of how much the industry is currently worth are between $2 and $4 billion a year.[2] Personality tests are used in a range of contexts, including but not limited to, individual and relationship counseling, career counseling, employment testing, occupational health and safety and customer interaction management.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_test

Even when using a tool that meets the criteria outlined above, personality constructs are not the most predictive measure available. Personality tests are most effective when combined with other measures with higher predictive validity, such as integrity or cognitive ability.
https://hbr.org/2014/08/the-problem-with-using-personality-tests-for-hiring/

The central issue of this paper is to review the possible relationships between the constructs of critical thinking and executive functions. To do this, we first analyse the essential components of critical thinking from a psychological and neurological point of view. Second, we examine the scope of the cognitive and neurological nature of executive functions. Third, we propose a model for comparing or mapping between the most important processes of both constructs. Fourth, we offer some conclusions on the relational path between the two concepts based on the studies reviewed and suggest possible lines of investigation that will undoubtedly facilitate the understanding of shared features and key differences between critical thinking and executive functions.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871187112000314

Perception and Individual Decision Making

Attribution Theory

· When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally (under the personal control of the individual) or externally (outside causes “force” you to behave a certain way) caused.

Fundamental Attribution Error

· The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.

Self-Serving Bias

– The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

Attribution Theory – Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others

– Selective Perception

– People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background, experience, and attitudes.

– Halo Effect

– Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.

– Contrast Effects

– Evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

– Projection

– Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people

– Stereotyping

– Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.

http://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/sablynskic/Ch5OBE150.htm

Chapter 5: Perception and Individual Decision Making

What are you responsible to learn?

•Explain how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently.

• List the three determinants of attribution.

•Describe how shortcuts can assist in or distort our judgment of others.

•Explain how perception affects the decision-making process.

•Outline the six steps in the rational decision-making model.

•Describe the actions of the boundedly rational decision maker.

•List and explain eight (8) common decision biases or errors.

•Identify the conditions in which individuals are most likely to use intuition in decision making.

•Describe four styles of decision making.

•Contrast the three ethical decision criteria

Perception

What is Perception?

A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

Why is it Important?

Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world that is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.

Factors Influencing Perception

· The Perceiver – attitudes, motives, interests, experiences, expectations

· The Target – novelty, motions, sounds, size, background, proximity, similarity

· The Situation – time, work setting, social situation

Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others

Attribution Theory

· When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally (under the personal control of the individual) or externally (outside causes “force” you to behave a certain way) caused.

Fundamental Attribution Error

· The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.

Self-Serving Bias

– The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

Attribution Theory – Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others

– Selective Perception

– People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background, experience, and attitudes.

– Halo Effect

– Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.

– Contrast Effects

– Evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

– Projection

– Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people

– Stereotyping

– Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.


Specific Applications in Organizations

– Employment interview

– Early impressions are very important! Perceptual judgments are often inaccurate! (Another reason we should use structured interviews!)

– Performance Expectations

– People attempt to validate their perceptions of reality – even when they are faulty! Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion Effect) is based on the notion that expectations can determine behavior – this is a very powerful managerial technique!

– Ethnic Profiling – Is it right to profile employees?

– Performance Evaluations

– Many subjective components (perceptions) are used in the evaluation of employees

– Employee Effort

– How is “effort” perceived? It is often a “reason” for terminations

The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making

Decisions = Choosing between 2 or more alternatives

Problems = A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state

How should we make decisions in organizations?

To maximize a particular outcome, try the “rational decision making model”…

Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model

· Define the problem.

· Identify the decision criteria.

· Allocate weights to the criteria.

· Develop the alternatives.

· Evaluate the alternatives.

· Select the best alternative.

Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model

– Problem Clarity-

– The problem is clear and unambiguous.

– Known Options-

– The decision-maker can identify all relevant criteria and viable alternatives.

– Clear Preferences-

– Rationality assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted.

– Constant Preferences-

– Specific decision criteria are constant and that the weights assigned to them are stable over time.

– No Time or Cost Constraints-

– Full information is available because there are no time or cost constraints.

-Maximum Payoff-

– The choice alternative will yield the highest perceived value.

How can we improve creativity in decision making?

– You can produce novel and useful ideas by emphasizing the three component model of creativity: 1) expertise, 2) creative-thinking skills, and 3) intrinsic task motivation

So, how are decisions actually made in organizations?

· Bounded Rationality

– individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.

· Intuitive Decision Making

– Intuition = an unconscious process created out of distilled experience.

– Intuition is often used when there is a high level of uncertainty, there is little precedent to go on, when the variable in question are less predictable, when “facts” are limited, these facts don’t lead you in one particular direction, data is of little use, when there are several plausible choices, and there is time pressure

Problem Identification

– Problems that are visible tend to have a higher probability of being selected than ones that are important. Why?

– It is easier to recognize visible problems.

– Decision-Makers want to appear competent and “on-top of problems.”

– Decision-Makers self-interest affects problem selection because it is usually in the Decision-Maker’s best interest to address problems of high visibility and high payoff. This demonstrates an ability to perceive and attack problems.

Alternative Development

– Decision makers rarely seek optimum solutions but satisficing or “good enough” ones.

– Efforts made are simple and confined to the familiar.

– Efforts are incremental rather than comprehensive.

– Many successive limited comparisons rather than calculating value for each alternative.

– This approach makes it unnecessary for the decision maker to thoroughly examine an alternative and its consequences.

– Thus the decision makers steps are small and limited to comparisons of the current or familiar options.

Common Biases & Errors

– We tend to “take shortcuts” in decision making and this allows error and bias to enter our decisions. Common biases and errors include:

– Overconfidence Bias – We tend to be overly optimistic (especially when our intellect and interpersonal abilities are low)

– Anchoring Bias – Tendency to focus on initial information as a starting point.

– Confirmation Bias – We tend to seek out info that reaffirms our past choices and we discount info that contradicts our past judgments.

– Availability Bias –or the tendency of people to base their judgments on information readily available to them.

– Representative Bias — The tendency to assess the likelihood of an occurrence by drawing analogies and seeing identical situations in which they don’t exist.

– Escalation of Commitment –an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information (all too often creeps into decision making)

– Randomness Error – We tend to create meaning out of random events (and superstitions).

– Hindsight Bias – We tend to believe falsely that we’d have accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known.

Intuitive Decision Making – An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. (see example about firefighters – pg. 153).

Individual Differences in Decision-Making Styles

– Research on decision styles has identified four different individual approaches to making decisions.

– Directive Style — people using this style have a low tolerance for ambiguity and seek rationality.

– Analytic Style — people using this style have a much greater tolerance for ambiguity than do directive decision makers.

– Conceptual Style — people tend to be very broad in their outlook and consider many alternatives

– Behavioral Style — people who tend to work well with others.

These are based on our tolerance for ambiguity and way of thinking.

Gender: Women tend to analyze decisions more than men. Women tend to analyze a decision prior to and after the fact. This rumination (reflecting at length) difference is largest in the earlier stages of life and adulthood.

Organizational Constraints

· Performance Evaluations

· Reward Systems

· Formal Regulations

· System-Imposed Time Constraints

· Historical Precedents

Cultural Differences

– The rational model does NOT acknowledge cultural differences

– There are differences in what problems to focus on, the depth of analysis, importance of logic and rationality, and preference for individual vs. group decision making

What about Ethics in Decision Making?

– An individual can use three different criteria in framing or making ethical choices. Each has advantages and disadvantages…

– Utilitarian criterion — Decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences. The greatest good for the greatest number.

– Rights criterion — Decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges as set forth in documents like the Bill of Rights.

– Justice criterion — Decisions that impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially so there is an equitable distribution of benefits and costs.


Ethics & National Culture

· There are NO global ethical standards

· Most issues are not “black and white” (i.e., easy to say as being “right” or “wrong”)

· Q: How far should we go in punishing rule breakers? Execution?

Summary and Implications for Managers

– Perception

– Individuals behave based not on the way their external environment actually is but, rather, on what they see or believe it to be.

– Evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself.

– Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions.

– Individual Decision Making

– Individuals think and reason before they act.

– Under some decision situations, people follow the rational decision-making model. However, this doesn’t happen very often…

– So, what can managers do to improve their decision making?

• Analyze the situation.

• Be aware of biases.

• Combine rational analysis with intuition.

• Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate for every job.

• Try to enhance your creativity

Psalm 96New King James Version (NKJV)

A Song of Praise to God Coming in Judgment

96 Oh, sing to the Lord a new song!
Sing to the Lord, all the earth.

2
Sing to the Lord, bless His name;
Proclaim the good news of His salvation from day to day.

3
Declare His glory among the nations,
His wonders among all peoples.

4
For the Lord is great and greatly to be praised;
He is to be feared above all gods.

5
For all the gods of the peoples are idols,
But the Lord made the heavens.

6
Honor and majesty are before Him;
Strength and beauty are in His sanctuary.

7
Give to the Lord, O families of the peoples,
Give to the Lord glory and strength.

8
Give to the Lord the glory due His name;
Bring an offering, and come into His courts.

9
Oh, worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness!
Tremble before Him, all the earth.

10
Say among the nations, “The Lord reigns;
The world also is firmly established,
It shall not be moved;
He shall judge the peoples righteously.”

11
Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad;
Let the sea roar, and all its fullness;

12
Let the field be joyful, and all that is in it.
Then all the trees of the woods will rejoice before the Lord.

13
For He is coming, for He is coming to judge the earth.
He shall judge the world with righteousness,
And the peoples with His truth.

Psalm 97New King James Version (NKJV)

A Song of Praise to the Sovereign Lord

97 The Lord reigns;

Let the earth rejoice;
Let the multitude of isles be glad!

2
Clouds and darkness surround Him;
Righteousness and justice are the foundation of His throne.

3
A fire goes before Him,
And burns up His enemies round about.

4
His lightnings light the world;
The earth sees and trembles.

5
The mountains melt like wax at the presence of the Lord,
At the presence of the Lord of the whole earth.

6
The heavens declare His righteousness,
And all the peoples see His glory.

7
Let all be put to shame who serve carved images,
Who boast of idols.
Worship Him, all you gods.

8
Zion hears and is glad,
And the daughters of Judah rejoice
Because of Your judgments, O Lord.

9
For You, Lord, are most high above all the earth;
You are exalted far above all gods.

10
You who love the Lord, hate evil!
He preserves the souls of His saints;
He delivers them out of the hand of the wicked.

11
Light is sown for the righteous,
And gladness for the upright in heart.

12
Rejoice in the Lord, you righteous,
And give thanks at the remembrance of His holy name.[a]

A Plea for Relief from Oppressors

A Contemplation[a] of Asaph.

74 O God, why have You cast us off forever?
Why does Your anger smoke against the sheep of Your pasture?

2
Remember Your congregation, which You have purchased of old,
The tribe of Your inheritance, which You have redeemed—
This Mount Zion where You have dwelt.

3
Lift up Your feet to the perpetual desolations.
The enemy has damaged everything in the sanctuary.

4
Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place;
They set up their banners for signs.

5
They seem like men who lift up
Axes among the thick trees.

6
And now they break down its carved work, all at once,
With axes and hammers.

7
They have set fire to Your sanctuary;
They have defiled the dwelling place of Your name to the ground.

8
They said in their hearts,
“Let us destroy them altogether.”
They have burned up all the meeting places of God in the land.

9
We do not see our signs;
There is no longer any prophet;
Nor is there any among us who knows how long.

10
O God, how long will the adversary reproach?
Will the enemy blaspheme Your name forever?

11
Why do You withdraw Your hand, even Your right hand?
Take it out of Your bosom and destroy them.

12
For God is my King from of old,
Working salvation in the midst of the earth.

13
You divided the sea by Your strength;
You broke the heads of the sea serpents in the waters.

14
You broke the heads of Leviathan in pieces,
And gave him as food to the people inhabiting the wilderness.

15
You broke open the fountain and the flood;
You dried up mighty rivers.

16
The day is Yours, the night also is Yours;
You have prepared the light and the sun.

17
You have set all the borders of the earth;
You have made summer and winter.

18
Remember this, that the enemy has reproached, O Lord,
And that a foolish people has blasphemed Your name.

19
Oh, do not deliver the life of Your turtledove to the wild beast!
Do not forget the life of Your poor forever.

20
Have respect to the covenant;
For the dark places of the earth are full of the haunts of cruelty.

21
Oh, do not let the oppressed return ashamed!
Let the poor and needy praise Your name.

22
Arise, O God, plead Your own cause;
Remember how the foolish man reproaches You daily.

23
Do not forget the voice of Your enemies;
The tumult of those who rise up against You increases continually.

Quick Study May 19, 2016

Psalm 101New King James Version (NKJV)

Promised Faithfulness to the Lord

A Psalm of David.

101 I will sing of mercy and justice;
To You, O Lord, I will sing praises.

2
I will behave wisely in a perfect way.
Oh, when will You come to me?
I will walk within my house with a perfect heart.

3
I will set nothing wicked before my eyes;
I hate the work of those who fall away;
It shall not cling to me.

4
A perverse heart shall depart from me;
I will not know wickedness.

5
Whoever secretly slanders his neighbor,
Him I will destroy;
The one who has a haughty look and a proud heart,
Him I will not endure.

6
My eyes shall be on the faithful of the land,
That they may dwell with me;
He who walks in a perfect way,
He shall serve me.

7
He who works deceit shall not dwell within my house;
He who tells lies shall not continue in my presence.

8
Early I will destroy all the wicked of the land,
That I may cut off all the evildoers from the city of the Lord.

The Afters – Live On Forever (Official Music Video)